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P. The individualism of the point of view in a laughing contemplation of one’s social world is only surmounted when a large philosophic humour thus draws the laughers self into the amusing scene. This is why the librarian should say: “I am a citizen; nothing in this city is without interest to me.” That is why he should be a librarian of to-day, and why he may even look forward with hopefulness to the dawn of a still better to-morrow. It was the same in colour. In Latin the verb may often be placed, without any inconveniency or ambiguity, in any part of the sentence. An interesting example of this is given at the beginning of the “Manuscrito Hieratico,” recently published by the Spanish government.[213] It is the more valuable as an example, as the picture writing is translated into Nahuatl and written in Spanish characters. The crime of Bertrand becomes more lurid; the vindictive Adamo acquires greater ferocity, and the errors of Arnaut are corrected— Poi s’ascose nel foco che gli affina. Aye, there it is. MARY, DORSET _January 1, 1919_ FOOTNOTES: [1] Hume’s “Autobiography.” [2] This is the position of the Idealistic schools and is adopted in Professor Sorley’s recently published Gifford Lectures, “Moral Values and the Idea of God.” [3] This relationship may be expressed in psychological terms. Much of what is called laughable by a schoolboy, by a savage, or even by an educated Englishman, is made to appear so by the special habits and correlated modes of thought of his community or his class. The minds and bodies of those who are enervated by luxury and ease, and who have not had to encounter the wear-and-tear of life, present a soft, unresisting surface to outward impressions, and are endued with a greater degree of susceptibility to pleasure and pain. He appreciates the battles, the torchlight, the “dead sound” of drums, the white, worn face of Cicero in his flight peering from his litter; he appreciates the sharp brusque phrase of North: “he roundly trussed them up and hung them by their necks.” And Wyndham is learned. Robertson says Spenser himself used in three other places. The next evening the mob assailed San Marco; he was seized and conveyed to prison, and after prolonged and repeated tortures he was hanged and burnt on May 23d.[983] It will be observed that the ordeal of fire was principally affected by ecclesiastics university of washington thesis printing in church affairs, perhaps because it was of a nature to produce a powerful impression on the spectators, while at the same time it could no doubt in many instances be so managed as to secure the desired results by those who controlled the details. Here we may pause for a moment to ask: What right has a library to inflict any penalties at all? You must bring a character in your pocket; for they have no respectability to lose. In my home city the school authorities have been trying to cultivate this kind of neutrality by cautioning principals not to discuss the European war with their pupils. They reveal a marvellous tenacity of traditional words and forms, not only in dialects, but even in particular classes of the community, men having different expressions from women, the old from the young, the higher from the lower classes. Among the candidates for excellence in those different arts, the anxiety about the public opinion is always much greater in the former than in the latter. And this is the song of the marriage. This bed forms a dip towards the north-west, having a support of red sand on the one side, and green sand on the other. The young of the human species, however, continue so long in a state of entire dependency, they must be so long carried about in the arms of their mothers or of their nurses, that such an instinctive perception may seem less necessary to them than to any other race of animals. The force of despair hurries the imagination over the boundary of fact and common sense, and renders the transition sublime; but there is no precedent or authority for it, except in the general nature of the human mind. A very fair autograph collection may be made of such detached plates–not originals of course, but originals are valuable merely as curiosities, in the way that we have already noted. No one can do good work who is ill-housed, underfed, improperly clothed or overworked. Jonson’s characters conform to the logic of the emotions of their world. The Nahuatl, Mexican or Aztec language was spoken extensively throughout Mexico and Central America, and every tribe who used it could boast of a degree of culture considerably above that of any of the Algonkin communities. He dreads, not only blame, but blame-worthiness; or to be that thing which, though it should be blamed by nobody, is, however, the natural and proper object of blame. Whether there may not be some higher principle of our general nature in conformity to which our sentiments and actions with respect to others should be voluntarily regulated, according to the same rule by which gross animal appetite is subjected to rational self-interest, may be made the subject of a future inquiry. A trouble—like the all-enveloping thunder-storm—begins to retire almost smilingly as soon as we discern its boundaries. What, for example, would be the most perfect imitation of the carpet which now lies before me?–Another carpet, certainly, wrought as exactly as possible after the same pattern. And the same is probably true of the slightly amusing effects of such grotesque combinations of colour as are common in the costume of the harlequin, of the prince of mockers, and of other more or less comic figures. The smallest was the finger breadth, and was spoken of as one, two, three, four fingers, _han ca_, _cay ca_, _ox ca_, _cah ca_ (_ca_=finger). His senses keep him alive; and he knows, inquires, and cares for nothing farther. Passing now to the mythology of the Aryan nations, we find that the three great cycles of its poetry, the Indian, the Greek, and the Norse, agree closely in their opinions of the destination of the soul. It is not surprising, therefore, that some writers have regarded this legend with suspicion, and have spoken of it as but little better than a late romance concocted by a shrewd native, who borrowed many of his incidents from Christian teachings. It is enough to remember how he is wont to laugh his superior laugh at an Irish bull, as if this were necessarily an unconscious “howler,” whereas it may be, in reality, a charming expression of a most amiable trait of character.[270] A due recognition of the complexity of the sentiment discloses to us a point of capital importance: humour, in the sense of a perfect fusion of play and gravity, of the aggressiveness of laughter and kindly consideration, is, as already hinted, pre-eminently an endowment of individuals rather than of races. And Nature, indeed, seems to have so happily adjusted our sentiments of approbation and disapprobation, to the conveniency both of the individual and of the society, that after the strictest examination it will be found, I believe, that this is universally the case. With respect to the parts in which the tickling first excites laughter, different observers appear to have reached dissimilar results. A correct theory of architecture or of sculpture must have as its foundation a correct system of weights and measures, and recognized units and standards of gravity and extension. If you can really render yourself amiable, respectable, and the proper object of esteem, there is no fear of your not soon acquiring the love, the respect, and esteem of those you live with.’ Since the practice of virtue, therefore, is in general so advantageous, and that of vice so contrary to our interest, the consideration of those opposite tendencies undoubtedly stamps an additional beauty and propriety upon the one, and a new deformity and impropriety upon the other. Consequently, a poet will be at a loss, and flounder about for the common or (as we understand it) _natural_ order of words in prose-composition. So with respect to moral truth (as distinct from mathematical), whether a thing is good or evil, depends on the quantity of passion, of feeling, of pleasure and pain connected with it, and with which we must be made acquainted in order to come university of washington thesis printing to a sound conclusion, and not on the inquiry, whether it is round or square. But I confess I should be soon tired of it, besides wearying the reader. He is not much praised or beloved, but he is as little hated or blamed. APPENDIX TO THE ESSAY ON CLASSIFICATION. Robinson tells us that about 10 per cent. for _Essay_, read _Esop_. He has a story to tell: he tells it in the first page, and where it would come in well, has nothing to say; like Goldsmith, who having to wait upon a Noble Lord, was so full of himself and of the figure he should make, that he addressed a set speech, which he had studied for the occasion, to his Lordship’s butler, and had just ended as the nobleman made his appearance. To say that the intellect alone can determine or supply the movements or the language of passion, is little short of a contradiction in terms. Whibley does not disappear in the jungle of journalism and false criticism; he deserves a “place upon the shelves” of those who care for English literature. The humorist is much more likely to be found among students of philosophy who retain a measure of scholarly impartiality in relation to the competing creeds. We cannot see as red that which is yellow, nor as great that which is little.

It is, on the whole, rare for the university of washington thesis printing American tribes to declare themselves autochthonous. The amount of valuable material obtainable in postal-card form will astonish those who have not looked into the matter. I am ordered to dwell in the little and rocky island of Gyar?. First, this is to shift the ground of the argument; for it requires to be made out how a man can be said to have an interest in what he does not feel. It seems to follow that the adjustments of laughter to more universal norms, to ideas of an inherent fitness in things, are a kind of artificial addition to deeper and more instinctive tendencies. This separation led to an erroneous (or perhaps erroneous) sequence of the pages in Kingsborough’s edition. Des Guerres, seeing that loss of blood would soon reduce him to extremity, closed with his antagonist, and being a skilful wrestler speedily threw him. The sight of birds seems to be both more prompt and more acute than that of any other animals. The mind must be drawn together, must be contracted and shrunk up within itself by the mere supposition of this perpetual unity with itself and intense concentration of self-interest. The second was necessary in order to render him anxious to be really fit. Such violent consternations, which at once confound whole multitudes, benumb their understandings, and agitate their hearts, with all the agony of extravagant fear, can never be produced by any foreseen danger, how great soever. The man who is barely innocent, who only observes the laws of justice with regard to others, and merely abstains from hurting his neighbours, can merit only that his neighbours in their turn should respect his innocence, and that the same laws should be religiously observed with regard to him. Where there is no solid merit to bear the pressure of personal contact, fame is but a vapour raised by accident or prejudice, and will soon vanish like a vapour or a noisome stench. He or she at once reports in conversation that the public library assistants are continuously rude and disagreeable, and the machinery is forthwith set in motion that makes or mars reputation. The great man feels himself defined and separate from the world, a nomad amongst nomads, and as a true microcosm he feels the world already within him.” The really great men, the Kants, the Descartes, Leibnizs or Spencers, and the greatest artists are wholly creative, purposive, dynamic; they owe no allegiance to the masses, for they are greater than the masses; they realize all without reflecting all; they seek nourishment where they will, and they spew out what they will; this perfect freedom is necessary for the attainment of truth. The spectator, therefore, must find it much more difficult to sympathize entirely, and keep perfect time, with his sorrow, than thoroughly to enter into his joy, and must depart much further from his own natural and ordinary temper of mind in the one case than in the other. This point of view of the tribe has always coexisted with {294} the narrower and more relative one of the group, illustrated above, though it has in ordinary circumstances been less prominent in men’s mirthful utterances. The language of observers of unsophisticated human nature is sadly wanting in precision here. We have seen above that a belief existed that persons guilty of sorcery lost their specific gravity, and this superstition naturally led to the use of the balance in the effort to discover and punish the crime of witchcraft, which all experts assure us was the most difficult of all offences on which to obtain evidence. 1. It may be argued with force that every one of the great directions of social evolution, such as that of intellectual conceptions, of moral sentiments, of political and social liberty, of wealth, of the differentiation of classes and ranks, has involved as its effect some change in the intensity, the mode of distribution, and the manner of expression in daily life and in {255} art, of the laughing impulse. We are even put out of humour if our companion laughs louder or longer at a joke than we think it deserves; that is, than we feel that we ourselves could laugh at it. It is chiefly from this greater readiness and certainty with which we can look forward into our own minds than out of us into those of other men, that that strong and uneasy attachment to self which comes at last (in most minds) to overpower every generous feeling takes it’s rise, not, as I think I have shewn, from any natural hardness of the human heart, or necessary absorption of all it’s thoughts and purposes in an exclusive feeling of self-interest. It is national in extent, national in consciousness, if not national in administration. His children unconsciously absorb this same attitude. They are all, from the highest to the lowest, of more or less importance to one another. At the same time let it be observed, that such treatment requires much more delicate and intellectual attention than is in the power of those who for the most part live amongst the insane, and, have the direct and important management of them; and that, in justice to ourselves, I have a right to assert, that where such treatment has existed, and does exist, it is not a matter which money can remunerate, and that in this case there was no pecuniary reward. Great chief, old man, I enter. The criminal is caught with the red hand and the evidence of guilt is complete, save that the witnesses may be interested; confession thus becomes requisite, yet the failure to extort it by prolonged torment does not clear the accused; the ordeal is resorted to in order to supplement the torture, and solve the doubts which the latter could not remove; and finally, the criminal is absolved, though he dare not trust the judgment of God, and though the uncertainties in which torture had left the case are not removed. Suppose a man to labour under an habitual indigestion. And after him, his band of Myrmidons, With balls of wild-fire in their murdering paws … Here, again, the question how far animals are susceptible of the effect becomes important. Is not the public mind crammed, choaked with French books, pictures, statues, plays, operas, newspapers, parties, and an incessant farrago of words, so that it has not a moment left to look at home into itself, or abroad into nature? A Lombard, who wanted to say, _I had loved_, but could not recollect the word _amaveram_, would endeavour to supply the place of it, by saying either _ego habebam amatum_ or _ego habui amatum_. They are all growth-products. Perhaps the children of Vancouver’s Island felt this superiority most of all. Louis industries to hang in our Business and Industrial Room. We do not resign ourselves wholesale to unbridled licentiousness or anger because the reproductive instinct and pugnacity are inherent in our nature; on the contrary, we realize that our best interests lie in self-control. He who pretends to fit words to things, will much oftener accommodate things to words, to answer a theory. Qualifications for the different grades differed, but in quantity and advancement, rather than in quality, all coming under the heads of literature, language, general information and library economy. I should like to read the speeches in Thucydides, and Guicciardini’s History of Florence, and Don Quixote in the original. Where we disagree is that some feel that however unsatisfactory it may be there is nothing to be done about it; that others who agree that it is unsatisfactory are unable to agree on what they would consider satisfactory; and that even those who think they know this are unable to get together on a method of attaining what they desire. Now, what idea served as the common starting-point of all these expressions? Thus, Lumholtz writes of the pantomimic dances of the Australian blacks,[211] and Ling Roth assures us that the Tasmanians have their drolls and mountebanks, who exhibit the peculiarities of individuals with considerable force.[212] Among the Sumatrans, again, are to be found “characters of humour,” who by buffoonery, mimicry, punning, repartee and satire are able to keep the company in laughter at intervals during a night’s entertainment.[213] In some cases jesters are appointed by a chief, just as a fool used to be selected by one of our kings. She is not marble, but a fine piece of animated clay. And Fancy often wanders back, Through Time on her enchanted wings, To snatch one legend from the gloom That age about thy ruin flings. Magnanimity, generosity, and justice, command so high a degree of admiration, that we desire to see them crowned with wealth, and power, and honours of every kind, the natural consequences of prudence, industry, and application; qualities with which those virtues are not inseparably connected. They are peculiar to no one class of persons, to no one business, profession or institution. Your boast is that it is your business to tell the truth, and I believe it. So long as the laughter retains a distinct vibration of the old note of contempt, we must resist it; but when it grows mellow and kindly we are ready to withdraw the objection. The development and university of washington thesis printing career of these forms of the judgment of God were not in all respects similar, nor was their employment in all cases the same. I readily grant that he has made out his case, so far as to show that in most of the pungent and potently moving examples of the incongruous an element of degradation, of malicious detraction is present.